The overall focus of the course is on the functional adaptations and adjustments animals use to cope with the various environmental and physiological challenges to life in aquatic environments. The course will emphasize the physiological mechanism which conserved across taxa and those that are unique to a particular aquatic animal group, with some case studies on how particular groups of animals cope physiologically with extreme environments and with the contrasting environment during their life cycle (e.g. anadromy in salmon, catadromy in eels).